This battle took place after the Battle of Mu’tah in Jumada al-Thani, 8AH, in which the Muslims gained victory against the Romans. These days were among the last days of the Prophet ﷺ, a period where the Muslims gained victory over all of Arabia, opening doors to the domination of truth.
ONLY a few days after the Muslim army returned from Mutah, the Prophet ﷺ assembled another army, albeit one smaller in size, which was to sent on an expedition to Dhaat As-Salaasil. This time, the Prophet ﷺ appointed Amr ibn Al-Aas, to lead the army — a man who had embraced Islam only a few months earlier. The purpose of the expedition was to punish the Qudaa’ah tribe for two reasons: First, because of their recent participation alongside the Romans during the battle of Mutah; and second, because they were becoming increasingly hostile towards Al-Madeenah, moving closer and closer to it with the intention of doing its people harm.
Amr ibn Al-Aas’s army consisted of three hundred men from the Mujaahiroon and the Ansaar. When the army had almost reached its destination. Amr was told that the enemy had mobilized a large army, and so he sent a message to the Prophet ﷺ asking for reinforcements. Shortly thereafter, reinforcements came in the shape of a contingent that was headed by Abu Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarrah.
With the Muslim army now well-equipped and well-manned, the fighting began; however, when Amr went deep into Qudaa’ah territory, he found that the opposing army had broken up, its soldiers having scattered about in various directions, with each man trying to save his own life.
The goal of the mission, which was to put back the fear of Muslims into the hearts of Ash Shaam’s people, was accomplished; furthermore past allies became allies once again, and new tribes entered into treaties with the Muslims. During the course of the expedition, many people embraced Islam.
The expedition was a success for another reason as well; The Muslims now became the strongest force in the northern parts of Arab territory, which probably sealed the fact that they also became the strongest force in all of Arabia.
The Noble life of the Prophet ﷺ by Dr. Ali Muhammad As Sallabi, pg 1668